Zadar: poslijeratna urbanističko-arhitektonska obnova 1944-58.

Zadar: poslijeratna urbanističko-arhitektonska obnova 1944-58.

Kategorija Osvrti | 04/04/2017 32

 

Nakon niza izložbi posvećenih pojedinačnim značajnim hrvatskim arhitektima i dizajnerima, u utorak, 28. ožujka,u Hrvatskom muzeju arhitekture otvorila se izložba posvećena poslijeratnoj urbanističko-arhitektonskoj obnovi u Zadru. Izložba je nastala kao rezultat različitih istraživačkih projekata, a temelj su znanstveni projekti mr. sc. Dubravke Kisić Modernizam i prostorni identitet Hrvatske u dvadesetom stoljeću te istraživanja dr. sc. Antonije Mlikote vezanih za rušenje i obnovu Zadra. Realizirana je u suradnji Hrvatskog muzeja arhitekture (HMA-HAZU), Državnog arhiva u Zadru (DAZD), Narodnog muzeja u Zadru, Galerije umjetnina (NMZ) i Odjela za povijest umjetnosti Sveučilišta u Zadru.

Prema podacima iz 2011. godine,grad Zadar ima 71.471, a općina Zadar 75.062 stanovnika te je i danas jedno od turističkih središta Hrvatske. Brojne posjetitelje privlače obilje znamenitosti, što i nije neobično s obzirom na dugu povijest koja seže do antičkog razdoblja. Zadar je pun znamenitih crkava, a neke od njih su crkva Sv. Donata – građevina iz ranog srednjeg vijeka i jedan od simbola grada, katedrala Sv. Stošije, crkva Sv. Marije, crkva Sv. Krševana, crkva i franjevački samostan Sv. Franje. Jedan od novijih poznatijih spomenika Morske su orgulje iz 2005. godine, djelo arhitekta Nikole Bašića. Morske orgulje proizvode zvuk pod utjecajem valova i morskih mijena (plime i oseke) te tvore jedinstven spoj arhitekture i glazbe. Slikovitom izgledu grada pridonose i sačuvani ostaci gradskih zidina koje su nastale još u antičkom dobu i dijelom u srednjem vijeku. Jedna od atraktivnijih izložbi u Zadru jest Zlato i srebro grada Zadra koja čini stalan postav u samostanu Sv. Marije i značajan je dokaz bogate zadarske prošlosti.Dio zadarske kulture čini i autentičan liker Maraschino koji je dobio naziv po plodu dalmatinske višnje maraske.

 

zadar-001

 

Zbog današnje idilične slike ovog mediteranskog grada na obali Jadranskog mora, ljudi često zaboravljaju na mračniji period njegove povijesti. Upravo je cilj izložbe podsjetiti nas na razaranje koje je Zadar pretrpio tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata te kako se odvijalo njegovo obnavljanje nakon tog događaja. Za vrijeme Drugog svjetskog rata razoreno je 80% njegove povijesne jezgre, a ono što nije srušeno bilo je teško oštećeno. Po završetku rata, broj stanovnika Zadra pao je na 6000. Potom je oko deset godina bio prepušten propadanju sve do posjeta pisca Miroslava Krleže. Krleža je bio zgrožen zatečenim stanjem te je opisao kako su stanovnici čak palili umjetnine kako bi se ugrijali. Grad je bio opljačkan, a ostaci su bili prekriveni ruševinama. Zahvaljujući upravo Krležinom inzistiranju, nastala je zbirka Zlato i srebro Zadra 1951. godine.Poznato je i da je pod utjecajem Krleže Tito počeo dolaziti u Zadar te tako omogućio njegovu obnovu. Godine 1953. arhitekt Josip Seissel potaknuo je ostale arhitekte na natječaj za regulatornu osnovu putem članka Što traži Zadar? u časopisu Arhitektura.

 

Zadar-bombardiranje-Drugi-svjetski-rat

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Izložba je organizirana u četiri tematska modula kojima se prikazuje: Zadar prije rušenja u Drugom svjetskom ratu, bombardiranje grada i posljedice, prvi projekt obnove 1945./46. godine – regulatorna osnova Zadra autora Milovana Kovačevića, Božidara Rašice i Zdenka Strižića te natječaj za regulatornu osnovu proveden 1952./53. godinu zaključno sa sintetskim autorom rada Brune Milića koji je realiziran na temelju daljnje razrade rezultata tog natječaja. U prvome dijelu izložbe postavljene su razglednice i fotografije koje prikazuju grad prije rušenja. Slijedi prikaz stradanja grada kroz fotografije Ante Roce, Ante Brkana i Zvonimira Barbarića. U trećem dijelu nalaze se izloženi fragmenti projektne dokumentacije prve regulatorne osnove, dok je kao posljednja prikazana natječajna dokumentacija za regulatornu osnovu iz 1952./53. godine. Do danas nam je poznato svih četrnaest natječajnih radova.

 

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Za bolje razumijevanje izložbe potrebno je poznavati povijest grada, njegov izgled i značaj jer je tek tada cilj izložbe da podsjeti posjetitelje na tragičan period povijesti Zadra zasigurno ostvaren.Nakon toga još preostaje da se i sami zapitamo poput Seissela Što traži Zadar?. Dio odgovora svakako je bio Natječaj za regulatornu osnovu grada Zadra 1952./53. godine.

Naslovna slika: Hrvatski muzej arhitekture

Fotografija trenutnog izgleda Zadra

Fotografije Zadra nakon rata

Fotografije s otvorenja izložbe: Silvia Zaplatić

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