Victoria Lomasko: Glasovi drugih Rusija

Victoria Lomasko: Glasovi drugih Rusija

Kategorija Osvrti | 01/05/2017 42

Podsjetimo, sredinom travnja u prostorima HDLU-a otvorena je posljednja izložba serijala ‘Janje moje malo’ kustoskog kolektiva WHW (Što, kako i za koga?) u suradnji s Kathrin Rhomberg, a posvećena Mladenu Stilinoviću. Među brojnim radovima posuđenima iz austrijske kolekcije Kontakt, uključenima u kustoski postav izložbe, u galeriji Proširenih Medija HDLU-a ističe se mural ‘Autoportret u ruskom pejzažu’ suvremene ruske umjetnice Victorie Lomasko.

Iako njen rad ne pripada kolekciji Kontakt, predstavljanje njenog murala je, kao i njeno prvo gostovanje u Zagrebu, proizašlo iz dugogodišnjeg rada s kustoskim kolektivom WHW. Naime, 2014. godine ona sa svojim radovima sudjeluje na ciklusu izložbi Deset tisuća podvala i sto tisuća smicalica Meeting Points 7 u Beirutu, Beču i Moskvi, a kasnije iste godine prezentira svoje radove na izložbi Stvarno korisno znanje u madridskom Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía te gostuje u zagrebačkoj galeriji Nova.

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Foto: Facebook / Galerija Nova

Rad Victorie Lomasko uklapa se u koncept izložbe koji je motiviran trenutnom društvenom situacijom i suvremenim položajem istočnoeuropske umjetnosti šezdesetih i sedamdesetih godina koje se referira na tadašnje društveno stanje. Naime, Lomasko je umjetnica čije se primarno polje interesa nalazi u mediju grafičke reportaže koju izvodi u crtežu koji kombinira s muralima. Kao dominantnu temu ona odabire kršenje ljudskih prava, proteste i marginalizirane skupine u Rusiji koje postaju, kao i ona sama, nevidljive. U kombinaciji crteža i teksta Lomasko pronalazi ključ za opisivanje suvremenog života u podijeljenoj Rusiji koje objavljuje u umjetničkim knjigama. Iza nje je knjiga ‘Zabranjena umjetnost’, serija grafičkih reportaža sa suđenja. Također, djelovala je u anarhističkim novinama Воля’ (2012.—2014.), čiji naslov na ruskom ima dva značenja: volja i sloboda, a dijeljene su besplatno na prosvjedima u Rusiji.

Njeno najaktualnije djelo predstavlja ovogodišnja knjiga ‘Druge Rusije’. Rad obuhvaća njeno djelovanje posljednjih sedam godina ,a podijeljen je u dva dijela: ‘Nevidljivi’ i ‘Ljutiti’. U prvom dijelu ona prikazuje marginalizirane i zatvorene društvene grupe kao što su ortodoksni aktivisti, migranti, tinejdžeri iz popravnih domova, jednostavni ljudi iz provincije te članovi i članice LGBT zajednice. U Rusiji već godinama traju veći prosvjedi protiv Putina koju su pak u potpunosti nevidljivi u ruskoj suvremenoj umjetnosti. Za nju, vrlo je bitno prikazati ljude koji se bore za svoja prava. To , prema njoj, nije uobičajeno za Rusiju, u kojoj ljudi nemaju glas u javnom prostoru, a veći dio niti ne poima ideju društvenih prava. Lomasko prikazuje ljude na prosvjedima čije su poruke vrlo tipične. Njena je želja prikazati tim veći dijapazon političkih opredijeljenja, pa crta ortodoksne aktiviste ali i liberalne ljevičare.

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Foto: Facebook / Galerija Nova

Umjetnici se često postavlja pitanje o korištenju medija crteža: ‘Zašto crtaš, a ne fotografiraš? Crtež je medij prošlih vremena.’. Naime, Lomasko smatra da crtež može biti vrlo suvremeni medij koji ima svoje prednosti, posebice u Rusiji gdje postoje brojne situacije u kojima je fotografiranje zabranjeno. Tako njena prva knjiga ‘Zabranjena umjetnost’ dokumentira prizore sa suđenja kustosa suvremenih izložaba protiv kojih tužbu podnose ortodoksni aktivisti. Nadalje, veći je dio njenog umjetničkog rada ostvaren u suradnji s humanitarnim organizacijama, pa je tako kao volonterka u popravnim domovima crtala priče o tinejdžerima s kojima je radila. Za njihov je identitet je, kao i za identitet drugih heroja njenih reportaža medij crteža puno sigurniji od fotografije, te dopušta prenošenje poruka njenih heroja bez cenzure. Oni su njena prva publika koja odobrava ili kritizira njen crtež. Nerijetko je on i pristupačniji od fotografije, jer se crtanje smatra umjetničkim činom koji laska onima koji su prikazani, dok fotografija sugerira dokumentiranje svojstveno novinarstvu. S obzirom na to da klasično novinarstvo u Rusiji ne funkcionira, Lomasko se okreće ovakvoj alternativnoj formi koju zatim objavljuje na društvenim mrežama. Ipak, ni ova metoda nije sasvim sigurna s obzirom na to da je u Rusiji na takvim platformama teško govoriti otvoreno o političkoj i socijalnoj situaciji zbog brojnih regulacija. Jedna od regulacija nalaže da se osoba, ako ima više od 3000 sljedbenika na bilo kojoj društvenoj mreži, kvalificira kao medij, i na nju tada utječu sve restrikcije koje vrijede i za medije, iako se radi o jednoj osobi. Ista regulacija odnosi se i na dijeljenje sadržaja.

Usprkos tome, njena ideja funkcionira. Victorijini heroji postaju bliski čitateljima, oni pronalaze način da im pomognu, bilo poklanjanjem stare odjeće, doniranjem hrane i drugih potrepština ili širenjem svijesti o problemima koji u ruskom društvu ostaju nevidljivi.

Drugi dio njene knjige obilježen je protestima od 2012. godine. Lomasko dokumentira ljutite gomile ljudi vrlo različitih političkih stajališta, ali svi su ujedinjeni u protivljenju Putinovom režimu. Za nju je to krajnji cilj, crtati obične, nepoznate ljude ujedinjene u svojim namjerama. Lomasko smatra vrlo važnim crtati za vrijeme događaja, na mjestu događaja kako bi osjetila njihov ritam i dočarala kako iz malih, lokalnih protesta nastaju velike ideje koje okupljaju znatan broj ljudi.

Lomasko naposljetku ističe da su pitanja aktivizma i aktivističke umjetnosti nešto što ju svakodnevno preokupira. Ona smatra da je povijest umjetnosti prepuna umjetnika koji bi se mogli svrstati u tu kategoriju, poput Kathe Kollwitz i Diega Rivere čiji opusi sadrže veliki broj političkih slika, a i sami su bili u političkim strankama . Lomasko se pita: ‘Je li to bio aktivizam?’ Za nju, aktivizam i pojam aktivističke umjetnosti predstavljaju terminologiju koja jedino služi brendiranju i potpomaganju prodaje suvremene umjetnosti.

U toj točci se i sažima rad Victorie Lomasko. U suvremenom trenutku najveće globalne povezanosti čovjek je najosamljeniji. Ipak, svojim umjetničkim radom Lomasko uspijeva prenijeti važne, revolucionarne, možebitno i opasne ideje koje će svojim širenjem možda donijeti bolje sutra.

Victoria Lomasko rođena je u Serpukhovu u Rusiji 1978. godine. Radi kao grafička umjetnica, te predaje i piše o mediju grafičke reportaže. Autorica je knjige ‘Zabranjena umjetnost’, 2010. je nominirana za nagradu. Također je jedna od kustosica je dvije velike umjetničke izložbe, ‘Feministička olovka’ i ‘Crtanje suda’. Njezin radovi izlagani su na brojnim izložbama u Rusiji i inozemstvu. Živi i djeluje u Moskvi.

Izložba ‘Janje moje malo (Sve što vidimo može biti i drugačije)’ otvorena je do 6. svibnja 2017. u galeriji HDLU.

Dom Hrvatskog društva likovnih umjetnika, Trg žrtava fašizma 16

pon, ut, sri, pet 11 – 20 sati
četvrtak besplatan ulaz 18 – 22 sati
sub i ned 10 – 18 sati
Sve izložbe su zatvorene na državne praznike.

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