Kako štitimo arhitekturu modernizma?

Kako štitimo arhitekturu modernizma?

Kategorija Osvrti | 16/02/2017 31

 

Jučer je u prostorima Društva povjesničara umjetnosti Hrvatske u Preradovićevoj 44 održana tribina pod nazivom Kako štitimo arhitekturu modernizma?, na kojoj su govornici nastojali ne samo odgovoriti na postavljeno pitanje, nego i apostrofirati alarmantnu situaciju u kojoj se poslijeratna arhitektura u Hrvatskoj na gotovo sramotan način izostavlja iz domene arhitektonske baštine te se, kao što smo tome nažalost svjedočili na primjeru kuće Matulja izazvavši burne reakcije stručne i šire javnosti, sustavno uništava i briše sukladno željama investitora, a u izravnom sukobu sa stavom struke i statusom zaštićenog kulturnog dobra.

Slučaj Matulja nije jedini, ali je jedan od recentnijih primjera postupanja koje bi se moglo okarakterizirati kao svojevrsna metodologija rušenja nepokretnih dobara u pravnom vakuumu između preventivne i trajne zaštite. Naime, kako su jučer temeljem vlastitog terenskog rada upozorile dr. sc. Martina Ivanuš i dr. sc. Zrinka Paladino, perfidni mehanizmi kojima se arhitektura visoke umjetničke i kulturne vrijednosti naprosto poništava ne zaustavljaju se samo na pronalasku procjepa u trajanju zakonske zaštite, nego se nerijetko očituju i u svjesnom djelovanju kojim se ubrzava deterioracija objekata kako bi se oni urušili praktički sami od sebe.

U prepunoj dvorani DPUH-a, raspravljali su govornici iz nekoliko znanstvenih područja odnosno institucija, a pod moderatorskom palicom Saše Šimprage i Lidije Butković-Mićin iz voditeljskog tima projekta Motel Trogir, na čiju je inicijativu tribina organizirana i u suradnji s Odborom za baštinu i prostor DPUH-a. Na samom početku mr.sc. Anuška Deranja Crnokić iz Ministarstva kulture RH predstavila je proceduru upisa određenog dobra u Registar, naglasivši da poslijeratna arhitektura čini tek jedan posto od ukupnog broja građevina na listama Registra kulturnih dobara. Iako ovakva situacija nije specifična samo za Hrvatsku, u danom kontekstu možemo je dijelom tumačiti i kao proizvod političkih prevrata 90-ih godina 20. stoljeća, na što je u svom kratkom, ali nadahnutom izlaganju podsjetio i profesor Marko Špikić. Nastojeći ocrtati shvaćanje koncepta moderniteta u povijesti i teoriji konzervacije kroz 20. stoljeće, osvrnuo se i na proces deklarativnog odricanja od arhitekture iz razdoblja socijalizma koja biva simbolički kontaminirana slijedom djelovanja politika pamćenja kakve su nastupile tijekom i nakon Domovinskog rata.

No problem nedostatne razine zaštite ne odnosi se samo na konstrukciju i vanjski plašt građevine, nego i njenu nutrinu, interijer i opremu interijera, o čemu je govorila dr. sc. Iva Ceraj, kustosica Hrvatskog muzeja arhitekture. Referirajući se na prošlogodišnji slučaj ozbiljne ugroženosti Murtićevog mozaika u bivšoj zgradi Pošte na riječkom Korzu (koji je ‘spašen’ zahvaljujući isključivo entuzijazmu i incijativi potpisnika peticije protiv uništavanja mozaika), Ceraj je predstavila vlastiti iscrpan rad na pripremi dokumentacije za zaštitu interijera zgrade Radničkog narodnog sveučilišta Moša Pijade, današnjeg Pučkog otvorenog učilišta, u cijelosti projekta Bernarda Bernardija. Kao najkrhkiji dio jedne građevnog organizma, interijer i mobilijar podložniji su raznim neovlaštenim izmjenama, dopunama i uništavanju od strane vlasnika nego vanjština građevine, premda su u načelima modernističkog oblikovanja ukorijenjeni kao sastavni dio arhitektonskog projekta.

Pitanje koje se nametnulo  jest kako promijeniti situaciju u kojoj neetičko postupanje sa kulturnim dobrima može poprimiti katastrofalne razmjere? Premda u čl. 11 Zakona o zaštiti i očuvanju kulturnih dobara izričito stoji kako se „na dobro koje je preventivno zaštićeno primjenjuje [se] ovaj Zakon i svi propisi koji se odnose na kulturna dobra.“, čini se da se preventivna zaštita shvaća kao odveć paušalna kategorija kojom se često lakomisleno manipulira. Prema istom Zakonu, ona ograničena na trajanje od 3 godine (s izuzetkom arheoloških i podvodnih arheoloških lokaliteta u slučaju kojih je predviđen rok od 6 godina), što ostavlja vrijeme ‘praznog hoda’ između isteka preventivne zaštite i registracije kulturnog dobra, a posljedično otvara prostor za nesankcioniranu destrukciju. Stoga je formiranje sustava specifičnih pravila za postupanje s kulturnim dobrima nužnost, a u trenutnoj situaciji produženje trajanja preventivne zaštite opcija je kojoj se priklonio velik broj sudionika tribine.

Također, nije naodmet još jednom istaknuti potrebu kvalitetne prostorne politike (koja sama po sebi u domaćim okvirima često izaziva zgražanje; no to je zasebna tema o kojoj bi se moglo opsežno diskutirati). Dobro prostorno planiranje u velikoj mjeri može regulirati nepotrebne i štetne postupke rušenja, ali i supstituiranja ove arhitekture megalomanskim građevinama koje često ne poštuju mjerilo prostora u koji su interpolirane i mogu znatno naškoditi vizuri i urbanom identitetu kvarta, naselja ili grada. Na to je upozorila i dr. sc. Željka Čorak na primjeru hotelske arhitekture mjesta Mlini pored Dubrovnika.

Premda su izmjene u zakonu potrebne, činjenica je da one mogu zaživjeti samo ukoliko se dodatno podigne svijest o ovom akutnom problemu. Zainteresirana javnost je najbolji korektiv za kontinuiranu devastaciju novijeg kulturnog naslijeđa. Informiranje građana o vrijednosti baštine, ne samo povijesnoj i umjetničkoj, nego i onoj društvenoj, te potencijalima koji imaju za novu namjenu, prvi je korak ka njihovoj valorizaciji i primjeni načela zaštite kulturnih dobara u praksi. Motel Trogir projekt je pokrenut s upravo tim ciljem, a istraživački tim se kroz posljednjih dvije godine isprofilirao u jedan od najagilnijih aktera na našoj kulturnoj sceni koji se neumorno trudi motivirati građane diljem Hrvatske da zauzmu negativan stav prema zapuštanju i uništavanju nekih od sjajnih ostvarenja hrvatskog modernizma.

Sinoćnja rasprava respektabilan je primjer dijaloga potaknutog istinskim entuzijazmom i brigom za opstanak poslijeratne arhitekture. Pokazala je također i da je izvjesni jaz između djelatnika državnih institucija i pripadnika građanskih inicijativa moguće premostiti, te da je struka spremna prigrliti aktivizam koji joj se u recentnije vrijeme često odriče. Naša je stručna ali i građanska odgovornost da ih u tome podržimo, i u budućnosti nastojimo spriječiti poništavanje mišljenja struke i, u krajnjoj liniji, glasa građana. 

Projekt Motel Trogir u 2017. godini podržavaju Ministarstvo kulture RH i Zaklada Kultura nova. Njihovu aktivnost možete pratiti na web i Facebook stranici projekta.

naslovna fotografija: Neli Ružić, Stolen Future (2015.)

 

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